Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.

TitleAccumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsWittmann M, Simmons AN, Aron JL, Paulus MP
Date Published2010 Aug
KeywordsAdult, Analysis of Variance, Brain Mapping, Cerebral Cortex, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Female, Humans, Image Processing, Computer-Assisted, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Male, Neuropsychological Tests, Oxygen, Reaction Time, Time Factors, Time Perception, Young Adult

A number of studies have examined the perception of time with durations ranging from milliseconds to a few seconds, however the neural basis of these processes are still poorly understood and the neural substrates underlying the perception of multiple-second intervals are unknown. Here we present evidence of neural systems activity in circumscribed areas of the human brain involved in the encoding of intervals with durations of 9 and 18s in a temporal reproduction task using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During the encoding there was greater activation in more posterior parts of the medial frontal and insular cortex whereas the reproduction phase involved more anterior parts of these brain structures. Intriguingly, activation curves over time show an accumulating pattern of neural activity, which peaks at the end of the interval within bilateral posterior insula and superior temporal cortex when individuals are presented with 9- and 18-s tone intervals. This is consistent with an accumulator-type activity, which encodes duration in the multiple seconds range. Given the close connection between the dorsal posterior insula and ascending internal body signals, we suggest that the accumulation of physiological changes in body states constitutes our experience of time. This is the first time that an accumulation function in the posterior insula is detected that might be correlated with the encoding of time intervals.

Alternate JournalNeuropsychologia
PubMed ID20600186
PubMed Central IDPMC2933788
Grant ListR03 DA020687 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
R03 DA020687-01A1 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
R03DA020687-01A1 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
IRG Funded
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